Pascal's Triangle provides a remarkably elegant way to calculate binomial coefficients, a set of numbers that are important in algebra and elsewhere. He had been assisting his father, who worked as a tax commissioner and sought to produce a device that could reduce some of his workloads. And his theorem came to be known as Pascal’s Theorem. When Pascal was just one year old, he fell seriously sick in which he was affected with swollen abdomen and random fits and twists. Oct 11, 1663. La pascaline (ou machine d’arithmétique) est une calculatrice mécanique mise au point par Blaise Pascal entre 1641 et 1642. One of the the greatest Blaise Pascal inventions was his contribution towards the branch of Projective Geometry, a branch or field that deals with various in-variants of geometrical figures. The device could perform addition, subtraction, and multiplication and division by repetition. The game has been played in its present form since as early as 1796 in Paris. The PascalineThe Pascaline, or Arithmetic Machine, was a French monetary (nondecimal) calculator designed by Blaise Pascal about 1642. Pascal’s friend wanted to figure out the best time to bet on a dice game, and how to fairly divide the stakes if the game was stopped midway through. The roulette mechanism is a hybrid of a gaming wheel invented in 1720 and the Italian game Biribi.. Blaise Pascal founded a direct relation between atmospheric pressure and height when Florin Perier, his brother in law conducted an experiment at Puy-de-Dome in France. He was a great philosopher, who, at 23 years of age converted from Christianity to Jansenism. Etienne was a tax collector and talented mathematician and Antoinette died when Blaise was a baby, as a result of which he was very close to his elder sisters who raised him. This religious revelation or second conversion changed his bent of mind forever. It was in 1642 that Blaise Pascal, in his endeavor to help his father to solve tedious tax calculations, invented the first and world’s only fully functional mechanical calculator. This great scientist and mathematician suffered from sickness all throughout his adult life. An interesting trivia in this list of Blaise Pascal facts relates to his education. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. His father, Étienne, was a civil servant and served as king's counselor. Revendication : Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat invented probability theory to solve a gambling problem. Birth-Death Oct 4, 1629. Blaise Pascal died after suffering terrible pain, probably from carcinomatous meningitis following a malignant ulcer of the stomach, in 1662. Quotations from Blaise Pascal 1. He invented Pascal’s Law and his influential principle. It was because of Pascal’s father, Etinenne’s accident that the whole Pascal family converted to another faith that believed in living life dedicated to god – Jansenism. 14 Facts about W.EB. It repudiated free will, accepted predestination, and taught that divine grace, rather than good works, was the key to salvation. To do so, he reproduced and amplified experiments on atmospheric pressure by constructing mercury barometers and measuring air pressure, both in Paris and on the top of a mountain overlooking Clermont-Ferrand. He home tutored his three children – Pascal, Gilberte and Jacqueline in Paris while working on his various scientific pursuits. Pascal himself was the first to feel the necessity of entirely turning away from the world to God, and he won his family over to the spiritual life in 1646. The genius’s contribution to calculating and computing could never be forgotten, and in order to recognize his contributions, Wirth named his new computing language Pascal. Pascal’s father, Étienne Pascal, was presiding judge of the tax court at Clermont-Ferrand. Pascal, red crayon drawing by Jean Domat, c. 1649. Seeing his mathematical bent of mind, at the tender age of 13, Pascal was introduced by his father to the society that discussed on high level topics related to science and maths. Now, you have the chance to discover a great deal about this magnanimous personality from this list that is showcasing 18 Blaise Pascal inventions and facts that will cover his inventions, works, life, death and family. Director of Studies, Religious Sciences Division, Institute for Advanced Research, Paris. Pascal was the new computer language developed in 1972 by a scientist called Nicklaus Wirth who dedicated it to the great inventor and mathematician Blaise Pascal. The significance of this contribution explains the youthful pride that appears in his dedication of the machine to the chancellor of France, Pierre Seguier, in 1644. Corrections? In 1631 the family moved to Paris, France. Pascal was a child prodigy tutored and educated by his father Etienne Pascal. The 17 th century French physicist and mathematician, Blaise Pascal, is known for many important contributions to both fields, which is particularly impressive considering the fact that he died at the really quite young age of 39. It was in 1654 that Blaise Pascal denounced his scientific pursuits forever and went religious. Pensees or Thoughts offered a detailed examination of Christian faith, and included fragments written about Pascal’s philosophical ideas. In the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. The facts about his illnesses were brought to limelight in his biography written by his sister Gilberte. Most people attributed the reason to witchcraft. Ans: Lebiniz invented first mechanical calculator named “stepped reckoner”. The letters were declared a heresical act, and hence were ordered to be destroyed by King Louis XIV. Among his proudest achievements were inventing the early mechanical calculator, creating the mathematical theory now known as Pascal… Calculator > Invented by: Blaise Pascal > Age when invented: 18 > Invented in: 1642 Blaise Pascal was a noted French mathematician, physicist, and … In his letters, he mocked the various Jesuit institutions and garnered much aplomb from the public. The young man’s work, which was highly successful in the world of mathematics, aroused the envy of no less a personage than the great French Rationalist and mathematician René Descartes. Pensees is regarded as a gem of French prose and a landmark as well. Most historical books claim that the first watch was discovered by Peter Heinlein, a German. He wrote the influential work Provincial letters. Between 1642 and 1644, Pascal conceived and constructed a calculating device, the Pascaline, to help his father—who in 1639 had been appointed intendant (local administrator) at Rouen—in his tax computations. Blaise Pascal was a French Mathematician, Physcist, inventor, Philosopher, writer and theologist. Blaise Pascal, (born June 19, 1623, Clermont-Ferrand, France—died August 19, 1662, Paris), French mathematician, physicist, religious philosopher, and master of prose. He was the second person known to have created a device of this kind. Blaise Pascal invented the syringe. A team of scientists monitored the readings of both, and concluded that the mercury level in the first tube remained the same, but, the level of mercury in the second tube diminished with an increase in height. He is credited with inventing an early calculator, amazingly advanced for its time, called the Pascaline. When writing about Blaise Pascal inventions, his law of hydrostatics has to be mentioned. He built 50 of them over the next 10 years. While his sister Jacqueline (born in 1625) figured as an infant prodigy in literary circles, Blaise proved himself no less precocious in mathematics. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. In 1640 he wrote an essay on conic sections, Essai pour les coniques, based on his study of the now classical work of Girard Desargues on synthetic projective geometry. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He started drawing geometrical figures all by himself and drew conclusions on his own. The young Blaise was taught less of mathematics, and more of history, philosophy, geography, languages like Greek and Latin. Blaise Pascal's Birth day Blaise was born in Clermont-Ferrand France Period: Jun 19, 1623 to Aug 19, 1662. It was Pascal’s first work that offered light on Christian apologetics. Things are true or false depending on… When he fell ill from overwork, his doctors advised him to seek distractions; but what has been described as Pascal’s “worldly period” (1651–54) was, in fact, primarily a period of intense scientific work, during which he composed treatises on the equilibrium of liquid solutions, on the weight and density of air, and on the arithmetic triangle: Traité de l’équilibre des liqueurs et de la pesanteur de la masse de l’air (Eng. They lived with the Pascal family for about three months during which they motivated them to join their movement by preaching their beliefs. Also Read: 15 Facts from Leo Tolstoy Biography. The theory was initially relevant to gambling, but currently, it is the foundation of many studies, for example, actuarial science. Pascal began to work on his calculator in 1642 when he was 19 years old. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The dials show the French monetary unit, the livre, which was divided into 12 deniers, each subdivided into 20 sols. This included religious writings that he continued with till he passed away at 39. He became a member. Omissions? In 1654 Blaise invented the roulette machine with other inventor, Pierre de Fermat. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Blaise-Pascal, The Story of Mathematics - 17th Century Mathematics - Pascal, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Biography of Blaise Pascal, Blaise Pascal - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Blaise Pascal - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Les premiers travaux de Pascal concernent les sciences naturelles et appliquées. This conversion was the starting point for Pascal as far as religious pursuits were concerned and is known as the ‘First Conversion’. These brothers belonged to Jansenism movement and believed in living an austere and god fearing life. Blaise Pascal and another well-known mathematician Pierre de Format invented probability theory in 1654 to solve a gambling problem related to expected outcomes. The modern day syringe was also invented by Blaise Pascal on the basis of Pascal’s Law. While there, he rubbed his shoulders with other prominent personalities like Fermat and Descartes. Therefore, the triangle is named after him. Blaise Pascal simply improvised the use by tying it on his wrist using a string. Absorbed again in his scientific interests, he tested the theories of Galileo and Evangelista Torricelli (an Italian physicist who discovered the principle of the barometer). His best-known philosophical invention was Pascal's Wager, the argument that pragmatism demands living your life as if God exists, because you will lose little if God is a myth but stand to gain immeasurably (eternal life) if God is real [source: Honderich; "Pascal's Wager" ]. Blaise's mother, Antoinette, died in 1626. To help with his father’s lengthy tax work in Rouen, in 1642 the young genius began work on his calculating machine, which was the first working mechanical calculating machine ( machine of Pascal). Go to the Index of 120 Philosophers Squared Blaise Pascal (1623 - 1662) was a French mathematician, inventor, and philosopher. Blaise Pascal, né le 19 juin 1623 à Clermont-Ferrand en Auvergne, mort le 19 août 1662 à Paris, est un mathématicien, physicien, inventeur, philosophe, moraliste et théologien français. In these letters, he focused on religion and defended the Jansenist community against the Jesuits. Blaise Pascal worked and experimented in the fields of hydrodynamics and Hydrostatics, thereby, contributing mightily to these fields. Blaise Pascal got religious visions in 1654 leading him to write 18 letters from 1656 to 1657. Touted as Pascal’s greatest mathematics inventions, the theory of probability was in fact a great contribution to the field of mathematics by this genius mathematician. Blaise Pascal never went to school,… Blaise Pascal made contributions to mathematics, physics, and philosophy. In the 1640s mathematician Blaise Pascal invented the Pascaline, an early calculator, and further validated Evangelista Torricelli's theory concerning the cause of barometrical variations. This law, also called Pascal’s Principle was founded in 1647 and is touted as the most influential law in hydrostatics. Here is one very interesting trivia in this collection of Blaise Pascal facts, and it relates to his falling ill because of witchcraft. Blaise Pascal était un mathématicien, un physicien et un philosophe religieux français, qui a jeté les bases de la théorie moderne des probabilités. Who would have imagined that the roulette machine was an invention by the influential scientist, inventor and mathematician, Blaise Pascal? Therefore, it was concluded by Pascal that atmospheric pressure decreased with an increase in height. It is speculated that roulette was invented in China and that arrived to … -He came up withPascal’s law or `the principle of transmission of fluid pressure.’ - In 1970, his contribution… -Pascal invented the Pascalines or Pascal’s calculator. In mathematics, you might recognize his name in Pascal's triangle. An interesting trivia in this list of Blaise Pascal facts relates to his education. It was in 1653 that Blaise Pascal wrote his famed mathematical book called Traité du triangle arithmétique or Treatise on the Arithmetical Triangle, and brought the concept to the people of the west. He entered Port-Royal in January 1655, and though he never became one of the solitaires, he thereafter wrote only at their request and never again published in his own name. French mathematician Blaise Pascal, like many of the people on this list, contributed to a number of fields of mathematics.